Управление отходами: зарубежный опыт
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…. Specifically, for the incineration of MSW in LC, the excavated waste can be screened into different fractions as per Table 3. For instance, a coarse fraction (> 50 mm) of the recovered organic masses can be incinerated directly, and sometimes a medium (18–50 mm) fraction can be incinerated with additional fuel. The fine fraction (< 18 mm) cannot be incinerated because of its low calorific value and very high ash content. Along with these measures, it is important to find out whether the collected waste has a recycling opportunity and its corresponding value. The waste has three important characteristics to measure i.e., moisture, density, and calorific value. The first one compacts the waste and makes it harder to incinerate. The second one increases the weight of the waste, increases its volume, and indicates how easily the waste burns. The third is the energy contained within the waste fuel.
…. A detailed characterization of MSW components and sub-components may serve as an important tool in improving waste management systems. More specifically, the Central Asian region and particularly Kazakhstan highly needs to improve its underdeveloped MSW management systems to cope with ever-increasing waste generation rates due to the rapid development in the region. However, a detailed MSW characterization study representative of Central Asian cities has not yet been conducted. The present study aims to (1) perform a detailed characterization of MSW as received by the landfill of Nur-Sultan City via three sampling campaigns and to (2) estimate the city’s SW generation rate based on field collection and literature data. It is expected that these data on detailed composition and generation rate of MSW would substantially aid the strategic planning of the waste management practices and policies in Kazakhstan and in Central Asia. Based on the findings, implications for more sustainable waste management are also addressed, which are not only valid for Central Asia but may also be applicable to other similar rapidly developing regions in the world.
…. In India, generation of power through gasification of plastic waste is gaining attention due to its flexibility, durability, and economy. Positronicsa private farm from West Bengalin collaboration with Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (CSIR), Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute (CMERI), Durgapur, has started producing power from plastic waste using plasma gasification technology (Positronics India 2021). Furthermore, coal and biomass co-gasification of plastics seems as a promising recovery route due to the positive effect on process efficiency and greater process flexibility. However, at present, limited work has been done to explore the suitability of plastic gasification in India. The future breakthrough of the method would need more research attempt to develop the appropriate equipment design and product optimization.
…. At a global scale, only a quarter of the municipal solid waste collected is diverted to waste management options such as recycling, anaerobic digestion and composting. Therefore, it is imperative to determine the effective way for the disposal or treatment of municipal solid waste around the world as the waste recycling patterns and practices differ between countries. Landfilling is a traditional practice used for the burial of non-recyclable wastes around the world, although in some developing countries the waste is disposed in piles or thrown into pits rather than concealing with soil. Landfilling appears to be a common organized municipal solid waste disposal procedure in most developed countries but is relatively less popular in developing countries that have limitations of open space due to high population density. In developing countries, some landfill sites also serve as temporary waste storage and have containment facilities for waste consolidation, transfer and processing such as sorting, recycling and treatment. Landfills can also act as specific sites for municipal solid waste disposal that can be monitored for waste processing and sorting of recyclable materials before tipping.