Молочная промышленность: зарубежный опыт
Данная тематическая подборка посвящена новым зарубежным разработкам в молочной промышленности. Она включает материалы из базы данных Springer.
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The dairy food products which are often termed as fermented milk products, cultured dairy products, cultured dairy foods, or cultured milk products have been industrially produced through the fermentation of milk sugar (lactose) with various LAB like Lactobacillus spp., Leuconostoc spp. and Lactococcus spp. The overall production processes that can transform the liquid milk into various fermented dairy products involves the addition of lactic-acid-producing microbial strains such as LAB and/or yeasts which ingest the milk’s lactose to digest and release lactic acid as wastes in the milk and thereby reduce the pH of milk i.e., raise the acidity in the milk. The rise of milk acidity simultaneously accelerates the curdling of milk which is an essential prerequisite for the ultimate production of different fermented dairy products such as yoghurt, cheese, kefir, sour cream, and so on (Kerry et al. 2018a, b). The amount and types of composition in different mammals vary from species to species but most of the dairy products are produced using cow’s milk. Cow’s milk mainly consists of water with approximately 4.8% lactose, 3.2% protein, 3.7% fat, 0.19% non-protein nitrogen, and 0.7% ash. The major proteins found in milk are caseins, whey proteins, and immunoglobulins among which caseins comprise of about 80% of proteins.
The texture is an important parameter in the quality of food and satisfaction of customers. Cheese is produced in many different textural features and compositions. The texture depends on the chemical composition of the ingredients used, the conditions of the production followed in cheese making, and the water, oil, and emulsifying salts added to the cheese (Fagan et al. 2007a). The textural properties of the samples belonging to both calibration and external validation sets were summarized and compared in Supplementary. In general, it was observed that the results from the reference analysis regarding six different texture parameters examined in this study exhibited similarity between calibration and external validation sets. Performance statistics of the PLSR models developed for these texture parameters were further compared in. With the number of PLS-factors ranging from 3 to 10, the best models were developed with the inclusion of full spectral range (10,000–4000 cm−1) for NIR application and part (1800–650 cm−1) of the MIR region. Although NIR-based PLSR models were superior in this study, RPD values for texture parameters overall were below 2, limiting the further use of NIR and MIR spectroscopy in quality control procedures of cheese for textural properties
Fat free dry matter analysis of yogurts were performed according to Turkish Standards (TS 1330) (2006). Petri dishes added with sea sand were dried in the oven. When these petri dishes cooled in desiccator, they were weighed in a precision weighing scale. Five grams of yogurt sample was added in order to incubate for 2 h at 103 ± 2 °C. After that, petri dishes were cooled in desiccator, and weighed in the precision weighing scale.
Quantitative analysis of protein content in yogurts were carried out by formol titration method (TS 1330) (2006). Fifty mL of yogurt sample was added into 50 mL of distilled water. After that, a 0.5 mL of 2% phenolphthalein solution (Merck, Turkey) and 2 mL of saturated potassium oxalate (Merck, Turkey) were mixed to be homogenized. After waiting 2 min, the mixture was titrated with 0.1 N NaOH (Merck, Turkey) to give a slightly pink color. Ten mL of formaldehyde (Merck, Turkey) were added, and mixed for 1 min. The value was measured by titration with NaOH….
Lactose provides numerous functional benefits to food formulations as a consequence of its physicochemical and functional properties. It possesses solubility, acts as a bulking or flow agent in dry mixtures and contributes to the amount of solids and to a low level of sweetness. It also enhances color, flavor and texture, helps browning processes and can be directly compressed into tablets Lactose has been widely used in different food products, as recognized in Fig. 5. It is typically employed as food ingredient in dairy, bakery, snack, confectionery, and other food and nutritional products. In this industrial sector, lactose encompasses a large number of roles, viz., free-flowing agent; non-hygroscopic carrier in dry blends; absorb and enhance flavors and absorb colors; contributes to color and flavor development through Maillard browning reaction; replaces other sweeteners as a source of solids with low sweetness intensity; it is used as natural source of carbohydrate energy in infant formulas; and it is a good functional carrier in pan-coating candy centers and forming tablets….